STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 22 May 2015, 06:46

MERRIMACK MANUFACTURING COMPANY, Lo LoWELL, WELL, MASS.,
U.S.A.
Engineer, J. T. BAKER, C.E. ; Built, 1882.
Description. Circular brick shaft, with inner shaft and core.
Dimensions,
Height above ground line 282' o"
Outside diam. foundation 30' 0"
Outside 2' 6" above ground 28' 0”
Inside 12' 0"
Inside at top 12' 0"
Foundation. The chimney is founded on a ledge of sandstone. The foundation, 30' in diam., is built of granite blocks, laid on their natural beds. At the surface of the ground there is a dressed granite base 2' 6" in height, laid in clear Portland cement, the remainder of the foundation being in Rosendale cement and sand. Upon this base is placed the brickwork, consisting of three cylinders, as follows :
Outer Shaft. Batter, .42" per ft. for a height of 100'.
1st section .... 75 ½ ' high, 28' diam. 24" thick. At junction of inner shaft, 36 ½ “ thick.
2nd .... 60' high. . . . 20"
3rd 70' .... 16"
4th , 74' ,, including cap 12"
279 ½ ft high above granite base.
Inner Shaft. Vertical, 18' diameter; 75 ½ ft high; 8" thick.
At this height the inner shaft connects with the exterior brickwork, making the masonry at that point 36 ½ ft thick, as above. Lining or Core. Uniform inside diameter, 12'. It is entirely separate from the outside masonry, except the
doorways and flue openings, and is built up as follows :
1st section 100' high 16" thick.
2nd 60'…. 12"
3rd , 90' ……8"
4th 29 ½ ft… 4"
279 ½ ft high above granite base.
Construction. The core was laid in mortar of lime and sand ; the outside shell in lime, cement and sand. Ladder and Lightning Conductor. On one side of the chimney is a ladder of iron extending from the ground to the top, and on the opposite side is a ¾ “ galvanised iron wire rope, both ladder and rope being connected with a copper ring, having four spurs, the central point of which extends 8' above the top of the shaft. The bottoms of both ladder and rope are connected to a 16" water pipe. Duty. Two wrought-iron flues enter the chimney, one 5' x 6', and the other 5' x 11ft. The chimney is constructed to
provide for 15 sets of boilers; only 12 are now in use. Each set has 103 ¼ square ft. of grate surface, and is rated at 300 hp.
Weight. Chimney, 3,392 tons; cap, 18,6oo-lbs. Materials. 1,101,000 bricks; 6,875 cubic feet stone masonry. Cost. 18,500 dollars, or £3,854. 35. 4d.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 23 May 2015, 05:06

MESSRS. COX BROTHERS, CAMPERDOWN LINEN WORKS,
LOCHEE, DUNDEE.
Fig. 17.
Architect Mr. JAS. MACLAREN.
Description. Ornamental brick, square to a height of 230'. A balcony or cornice is here constructed. From this to top the chimney is octagonal.
Dimensions,
Height from foundation to top 296'
Height from ground line 282'
Foundations 35' o" square, walls 12' thick.
At ground line 30' square and 6ft thick.
At top of 1st panel 24' square walls, 3ft 3 ins thick
Ditto main panel 21' 3", 2ft 5 ins thick.
Ditto balcony 20' 3", 2ft 1/2in thick
Ditto chimney 19', 1foot thick.
Circular flue at base 14' 6" internal diam. 1' 6" thick.
top 13' 8", 9" thick.
Construction. The chimney is panelled and ornamented by designs in parti-coloured bricks. The base is of ashlar, and surmounted by massive stone mouldings. Above this is the first panel, the pilasters of which are checkered red and white. Above this is a base moulding, out of which spring the sides of
the next or main panel, which extends to a height of 185' 2" above the ground. It is relieved in the centre by loop holes and sham clock holes at the top, and the sides of the main panels are striped red and white. The tops of the main panels are arched, and above them are two smaller panels on each face of the chimney, surmounted by a Grecian frieze and other ornaments in white and black bricks. Over this is constructed the cornice or balcony, round which there is an ornamental iron railing. Ladder to Balcony. The outside walls being square, while the inner shaft is circular, a space is left at each corner, and access to the balcony has been obtained by utilizing one of these spaces in which to construct an iron ladder. Flues. The flues are of elliptical form, 9' 6" X 5' 6", and constructed in each of the four sides, but at present only two are in use. Duty. There are 58 furnaces connected to the chimney, and also 13 smith's forges, and in addition the draught is used for other purposes.
Draught. The draught is now equal to a water pressure of 1.8”
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 24 May 2015, 04:48

WROUGHT IRON CHIMNEYS.
Wrought iron shafts have found great favour in America and Russia, but in England and the Continent generally, as far as we have been able to ascertain, they are an exception. In addition to the wrought iron shafts, detailed descriptions of which will be found in order of their respective heights (see
Index), we have been informed of the following : Messrs. Witherow & Gordon, of Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., have, since 1876, built upwards of 30 wrought iron shafts, varying in height from 100' to 190', and from 5' to 9' in
diameter. The firm write us that these shafts answer admirably the purpose for which they were built. Mr. L. S. Bent, Superintendent of the Pennsylvania Steel Company, Steelton, Pa., U.S.A., states that his Company have the following eight wrought iron shafts in use, and have found them both durable and economical :
No. 1: 170ft high, 6ft 6ins diameter, built 1881. . . . J7o'hgh6' 6" diam., built
No 1: 165ft, 6’6” diam. 1877
No 1: 135ft, 7ft diam. 1880
No. 1: 112Ft, 6ft diameter. 1881
No. 4: 110ft, 7ft diameter.

They are lined for 30' with 9" fire-brick, and the remainder of height with 4" red bricks.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Invernahaille » 24 May 2015, 11:17

Stanley,
I just had a notion to forward the following and with your pull and contacts viz a viz Robert Aram. I thought you might like to follow this link. Wheels within Wheels so to speak.



http://www.rochdaleonline.co.uk/news-fe ... der-threat
Last edited by Invernahaille on 25 May 2015, 00:05, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by plaques » 24 May 2015, 18:52

If this is still correct It looks like it needs a few thousand e-mails to the chairman of United utilities and to their local MP.

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 25 May 2015, 02:28

Not good news Robert. It's the way the world works at the moment. I'll look into it..... If anyone from Ellenroad is reading this they should go back and read the original foundation documents. We covered an eventuality like this and there are some interesting statutory clauses which specify what happens to the complex if the Trust ever fails... It is not as simple as 'closing it down'.

If any of the lads are interested there's a new programme on demolition being screened on BBC2 and from the trail, the demolition of Glen Mill chimney at Colne will feature in the next episode.....
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Invernahaille » 25 May 2015, 22:36

The Rochdale Observer, published the story as well.
http://www.manchestereveningnews.co.uk/ ... gs-9326365

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 26 May 2015, 03:09

Thanks for that Robert. I have made a first tentative move but heard nothing yet. They should be reading the files and contacting their many sponsors but I know nothing of how the Trust is operated these days. One would think that the Board of Directors of the Trust, who bear ultimate responsibility, would be making moves but I have no news about that from the inside. It's a mess but I have to say that when I left I warned them of the dangers. But I am Yesterday's Man of course, they have never come to me for information or advice, I have been erased form history unless there is something they want to lay blame for! I shall continue to monitor the situation.....

M. M. SCHNEIDER & Co., CREUSOT.
At the above works, in 1869, the chimneys that had served for nine years to carry away the products of combustion from 24 boilers became inadequate to meet the increased requirements of the establishment, which had been considerably extended from time to time ; and it was decided to construct a new chimney in connection with an additional group of boilers. This new shaft it was determined to build in iron. A W.I. shaft had already been erected at the works 197' in height, 4' 3" in diam. at top, and 10' diam. at bottom, with plates from 3/32” at top to 7/16” base in thickness, and weighing 28 tons, and had been constructed on the ground, and successfully raised in bulk to its assigned position. This formed a guide to the planning and construction of the proposed new and much larger shaft, the details of which are as follows:
Constructors, M. M. SCHNEIDER & CIE ; Engineer, M. GEAY.
Dimensions, Height of masonry foundation above ground I metre. Height of iron shaft from top of masonry foundation 84.35 metre = 276' 8". Total height from ground line 280'. Outside diam. of masonry 1 metre above ground line 7 metres, 23'. OD of shaft at top 2.30 M = 7' 6".
Construction. The base of shaft is in form a frustrum of a cone to a height of 10 m., or 32' 8", and is built up of eight rings of plates each 1.25 m. = 4' 1" high, measuring from C to C of rivets. The base is fixed to the masonry foundation by a very strong angle iron ring riveted to chimney plates, and secured to the foundation by holding-down bolts. At the 9th ring, from bottom of shaft, the circumference is made up of eight plates 14 mill. = .55" in thickness, and at the
upper part the rings are each composed of four plates only, 7 mill. = .275" in thickness. Scaffold. This shaft was erected by means of a "flying scaffold," that is cross-arms or bearers resting on angle irons, riveted to the inside of the wrought iron plates as erected. These bearers carried an internal platform, and an iron tube with cross-head timbers at top, from which was suspended an outside platform, so that the men could work both inside and outside the shaft. The scaffold was raised each time a complete ring of plates had been riveted up. This was done by two beams being placed across the top of the completed ring of plates, each beam being provided with two large nuts, through which screw rods worked. Near the bottoms of the four screw rods ratchet wheels were fixed, and the four ratchet wheels were worked simultaneously, until the whole scaffold had been raised the required height, and the cross arms or bearers brought up to the level of the next set of internal angle irons, to which the scaffold was secured. The next ring of plates was then commenced. Ladder. The internal angle irons used in erection remained in
the shaft, and would serve for future ascension. Fire-brick Lining. An inner lining of fire-bricks was constructed for a height of eight plates, or 32' 8". Weight. Masonry in foundation, about 300 tons ; weight of iron shaft, 80 tons.
Cost. This shaft, exclusive of foundation, cost £1,600.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 27 May 2015, 05:50

BARROW HEMATITE IRON AND STEEL WORKS, BARROW- BARROWIN-FURNESS.
Architect, A. WORRALL ; Builder, A. J. WOODHOUSE.
Built, 1865 May to Sept. inc. 5 months.
Description. Circular brick.
Dimensions,
Total height, including foundation 282' o"
Height from ground line to top 259' o"
Outside measurement at foundation 41' 8" Inside at base of shaft . 16' 8"
Outside at ground line 31' o" Internal 16' 8". At top 16' 6"

Foundation Bed. Stiff clay. Fire-brick Lining. The shaft is lined throughout with 4 ½ “ fire-brick, bonded to main shaft every third course. Scaffold. Inside. Brickwork. Purposely-made bricks were used in the construction laid to Old English bond, without hoop iron. Lightning Conductor. Copper stranded rope.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Invernahaille » 27 May 2015, 21:43

Stanley,
The Ellenroad Engine House story has reached the BBC. Perhaps something will happen now.

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-manchester-32895571

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 28 May 2015, 03:07

And that last paragraph is totally misleading...... What nobody has realised is that there are provisions in the foundation of the Trust to ensure the safety of the artefact. It isn't as simple as 'closing it down'. Perhaps someone will wake up shortly.......

AMOSKEAG MANUFACTURING COMPANY, MANCHESTER, NEW
HAMPSHIRE, U.S.A.
Architect, GEO. W. STEVENS ; Steam Engineer, CHAS. H. MANNING.
Builders, AMOSKEAG MANUFACTURING COMPANY.
Description. Circular brick; built 1883; 60 days occupied in construction.
Dimensions,
Total height, including foundations 265' o"
Height from ground line to top 255' o"
Outside measurement at foundation 25' 8"
Inside 19' 8"
Outside diam. at ground surface 25' o"
Inside diam. 19' 8" Thickness of brickwork 2' 8"
Outside diam. at top (exclusive of cornice) 12' 6"
Inside 10'. Thickness of brickwork at top 1' 3"
Foundation. The shaft is founded on a bed of ledge. No concrete used. Pressure. On foundation (as given by the firm) is 1o,22o-lbs. per square foot.
Bond. Headers every tenth course. Batter. 1 in 40.8”.
Bricks. 1,000,000 common bricks used in construction. Weight. 2,330 tons.
Scaffold. Outside scaffold used, costing 750 dollars = £156-5-0.
Duty. This shaft was designed to burn 18,000-lbs. Of anthracite coal per hour. It carries off the fumes from sixty-four boilers = 8,400 hp. The company chiefly manufacture ginghams, tickings and fancy shirtings. Inner Shaft. The chimney has an inner shaft of 10'internal diameter. Lightning Conductor. Wrought iron ; costing 95 dollars = £19-15-10. Cost. Complete, 16,000 dollars = £3,333. 6s. 8d.

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 29 May 2015, 07:16

MESSRS. LISTER & Co., MANNINGHAM MILLS, BRADFORD.
Fig. 18 (the tallest chimney in Bradford). [SCG note: Local name was ‘Lister’s Pride’]
Architects, Messrs. ANDREWS & PEPPER ; Clerk of Works, A. RHODES.
Builders, Messrs. J. & W. BEANLAND.
Description. Square ornamental stone chimney, of uniform width from base to top, with panelled sides.
Dimensions,
Height from ground line to top 256' 6"
Outside measurement base and top 21' o"
Inside at base 10'
Inside under cap 11'
Inside at top 13' o"
Fire-brick Lining. An inner shaft of fire-brick is constructed for a height of 50' in 9" work, leaving a cavity between it and the shaft proper of 4". Foundation. The foundation bed is clay; upon this is a layer of Lias lime concrete, 4' thick X 40' square, then two courses of large rag footings or landings, each course 12" thick, well bedded and bonded. Some of the landings were 12' x 7' X 1' in size. The quantity of stone used in the footings was about 3,300 cubic feet.
Lime. Barrow Lias lime used throughout. Materials. Total weight, about 8,000 tons. Scaffold. Inside. Cost. £10,000 about.

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 30 May 2015, 02:48

WEST CUMBERLAND HAEMATITE IRON WORKS CHIMNEY.
Figs. 19 and 20.
Engineer Prof. W. J. M. RANKINE.
Description. Circular brick, Old English bond.
Dimensions,
Total height, including foundation 267' o"
Height from ground line to top 250'
Foundation bed of concrete 3' deep X 34' 6" sq.
Outside measurement at bottom of footings 31' 6"
Outside measurement of sq. basement 30'
OD of bottom of circular shaft . . . 25' 7"
Inside diam. of circular shaft 2' above octagonal base. 21' 10"
top of shaft 13'. Outside 15' 3"
Contract and Execution. Tenders were invited from a limited number of builders in the north of England and in Scotland, and the lowest was accepted, being that from Messrs. William Wilson & Son, of Glasgow. The progress of the building was restricted by the specification to a rate not exceeding 6' vertical height per day. Concrete Foundation. In order that the concrete foundation might have time to harden, before being subjected to a heavy
load, it was made by the Iron Company themselves before the contract for the chimney was let. By dimensions given above and reference to diagrams 19 and 20, it will be seen the concrete foundation is square. Upon this bed four courses of footing are built, then a basement 30' square, which is gathered into an octagon by gradually stepping the brickwork at the corners ; from this line to the top the shaft is circular. There are four circular openings, 7' 6" diameter, with archings three bricks thick in the base for flues. The batter of circular shaft is uniform throughout, and was adopted because the accuracy of building can be tested at any moment by the eye without the aid of instruments.
Thickness of Brickwork,
1st section at top 80' o" = 1 ½ bricks, including fire-brick lining.
2nd 80' o" = 2 Ditto
3rd 88' o" = 2 ½ Ditto.
2' 0" = stepped from 2 ½ to 4 bricks.
Total, 250' from ground line.
Scaffolding. Internal scaffolding was used, and in its construction great care was taken that the horizontal beams should be wholly supported by the brickwork, and not by the vertical posts, for great danger has been known to arise from the upper brickwork coming to bear upon the ends of the horizontal
timbers, and through them on to the vertical posts, owing to the settlement of the lower part of the chimney. (See description of Port Dundas Chimney "
Straightening.") Stability. Prof. Rankine gives the bed joint of least stability
at 2' above the ground line, and the deviation of the resultant pressure from the axis of the chimney at that joint, which would be produced by such a wind as 55-lbs. per square foot is 6' 4", being a fraction of an inch less than of the outside diameter. Pressures. The following are the intensities of the mean
pressures due to the load on different bed joints :
At 2' above the ground line ...... 8 tons on the sq. ft.
In basement at springing of the arches . . 3 tons
On upper surface of concrete ..... 2 tons
On ground below 1.6 tons
Fire-brick Lining. This is included in the thickness of brickwork, as before stated :
Upper 160' of the shaft ½ brick thick.
Lower part of the cone, basement, flues, and archways . . 1 brick.
The fire-brick lining is bonded with the common brickwork in the ordinary way, the only difference being that the fire bricks are laid in fire-clay and the ordinary bricks in mortar. The reasons given for adopting this mode of construction, by Prof. Rankine, in preference to an internal fire-brick chimney, are as follows :
1st. When the fire-bricks are bonded with the ordinary bricks they contribute
together to the stability of the chimney, and so save an additional thickness of ordinary brickwork.
2nd. Unless the internal chimney is carried up to the top of outer cone there is a risk of damage through the explosion of gaseous mixtures in the space between.
3rd. There is also a risk of the cracking of the outer cone at and near the upper
end of the inner cone, through unequal heating at that place, unless the inner shaft is carried to the top of the outer one.
The basement is paved inside with 6" of fire-brick, resting on 6" of common brick laid on the concrete. Ordinary Brickwork. The ordinary brickwork is built of white bricks of good quality supplied by the Iron Company. The bond is Old English. In the basement there is one course of headers to every two courses of stretchers. In the cone one course of headers to every three courses of stretchers. Hoop Iron. Strips of No. 15 B.W.G. hoop iron, tarred and
sanded, are laid in the bed joints of the cone, at intervals of 4' in height, with their ends turned down into the side joints. Care was taken to bed the hoop iron on the common brickwork, and not on the fire-brick lining. The length of hoop iron, in each bed joint in which it is laid, is twice the circumference of
the chimney at that point. Mortar. In the concrete foundation, the basement and a small part of the cone, the mortar was made of hydraulic lime. Owing to an unexpected difficulty in obtaining such lime on the spot, it had to be brought from a distance, at considerable expense, and, therefore, the mortar for the rest of the building was made of a very pure lime from the immediate neighbourhood, rendered artificially hydraulic by a mixture of iron scale from the rolling mills at the works. The following are the proportions by
measure :
Lime 2
Scale 1
Sand 5

The use of iron scale for hardening mortar and making it artificially hydraulic should be more generally known. Cast Iron Curb. On the top of the chimney is a cast iron curb, 1" thick, coming down 3" both inside and outside. It was "paid" over with a coating of pitch when fixed. Lightning Conductor. The lightning conductor is of copper wire rope, about ¾ " diam. It terminates in a covered drain. Cost. Actual cost, including designing and superintendence,
was £1,560, being at the rate of almost 4d. (fourpence) per cubic foot of the whole space occupied by the building, which is 94,000 cubic feet nearly.
Duty. This chimney has to carry off the gaseous products of combustion from four blast furnaces, and from various stoves and boilers that are heated partly by burning the inflammable gas from the blast furnaces and partly by coal. The total quantity of solid fuel consumed is about 10 ¼ tons per hour, when all the furnaces are at work. Temperature and Draught. The temperature inside the chimney, when doing about three-quarters its full duty is 490F. and the pressure of the draught is 1 7/8”" of water, which agrees to a very small fraction with the pressure as deducted theoretically from the temperature and the height of the chimney.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 31 May 2015, 04:30

LANCASTER: MESSRS. STOREY BROTHERS & Co., WHITE
CROSS STREET MILLS.
Fig. 21.
Engineer, Mr. EDWARD STOREY ; Architects, Messrs. PALEY & AUSTIN.
Contractor, Mr. C. BAYNES.
Built 1876-7-8; about 18 months being occupied in its construction.
Description of Shaft. Octagon brick with stone cap.
Materials. 750,000 brick, 650 cubic feet stone and 145 cubic
yards concrete.
Foundation. The shaft stands upon a base of concrete 28' square X 5' thick.
Bricks. "Shale" bricks, supplied by the Caton Brick and Tube Company, were used. These were chosen because they are said to absorb less moisture than ordinary bricks. Internal Shaft. This is octagonal in form, 264' high x 8'
internal diameter, built 18" thick at base and 9" at top. It is built parallel to within 12' of the top, then sets back 7" at each side, as shown in diagram 21 . The inner shaft carries off the smoke from the steam boilers. It is surrounded by a space or cavity 2' 6" wide, enclosed by the outer shaft, and the vapours
from the stoves, &c., are passed off through this 2' 6" space. This space between the inner and outer shells is divided into three distinct flues by vertical diaphragms of brickwork, which latter serve to tie the whole structure together. Outer Shaft. The brickwork of outer shaft is 4' 6' thick, where it rests on the base, and 14" thick at top. About 20' from top of chimney the outside wall curves inwards, and joins the inside wall as shown on drawing. Annular Flue or Cavity. It will be seen at the junction of the inner and outer shafts two outlets are constructed in each of the eight sides, so as to allow the heated air, vapours, &c., to escape from the annular flue, the principal of which is more
fully described under the head of Print Works Chimney, Falls River, U.S.A.
Total, 3,300 tons. Cost. £2,800 complete. Deflection and Straightening. During the erection of this chimney, when it had attained a considerable elevation, it canted out of the perpendicular towards the south 3' 10 ½ " at the top. This was accounted for partly because during the two years occupied in its erection very frequent rains kept the mortar soft on the weather side, the result being that the joints on that side were squeezed rather closer than those on the other, and the stalk heaved or bent over. The principal reason, however, must have been that the foundation was a little weak on the south side, and thus yielded to the pressure, the weight on that side being increased by the deflection of the chimney. The work of bringing it back plumb was successfully executed by Mr. J. W. Cronshaw, of Blackburn. The operation
consisted in cutting out courses of bricks in 5 different places near the base on the north side of the chimney, and rather more than half way across. These courses were replaced by ones diminishing very slightly in thickness from south to north, so that the five courses shortened the north side of the chimney sufficiently to bring the axis in a true vertical position. The process of cutting was as follows : A width of about 18" was first cut right through the 4' 6" brickwork of the outer shell on the extreme north side, a course of bricks being then withdrawn, and the top and bottom joints being thoroughly cleaned off. Into this space 1 8" wide, good hard bricks were then closely packed, these bricks being thinner, as already explained, than those they replaced. At the outer end good oak wedges were inserted ; then similar cuts
were made right and left of the first, and similarly treated with bricks and wedges, the work proceeding regularly on each side, east and west, from the north towards the south. As this was done the wedges were gradually withdrawn, and the chimney quietly settled over towards the north, until when all the five cuts were completed it had come back to the perpendicular.
The lowest cut was close to the ground, and the highest about 30' above. Two of the cuts were continued into the internal shaft.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Steeplejerk » 31 May 2015, 10:48

Storrys chimney in lancaster collapsed in the 60s after an explosion,people were killed ,there is a plaque on the site of the disaster.
Work,the curse of the drinking class (oscar wilde)

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Invernahaille » 31 May 2015, 15:40

Storeys Linoleum factory. Closely linked with Lord Ashton.
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q= ... I1ejhUSf7w

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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 01 Jun 2015, 03:23

CONNAH'S QUAY CHEMICAL COMPANY'S CHIMNEY.
Description. Square brick shaft.
Dimensions,
Total height from foundation to top 258' 6"
Height from ground line to top 245' o"
Outside measurement at foundation 28' 3"
Inside at ground surface . . . . . . 17' 6"
at top 7'
Weight and Materials. The weight of stone in this erection was 645 tons, in addition to which 1,078,000 bricks were used. Cost. £2,000. This price will doubtless be considered very low, but the Connah's Quay Chemical Company, for whom this stalk was erected, say that the cost was but little over the above sum.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 02 Jun 2015, 05:46

I think we can safely say that this was a troublesome stack!

NEWLAND'S MILL CHIMNEY, BRADFORD.
Figs. 22 to 30 inclusive.
Built for the late Sir H. W. Ripley, Bart., 1862-3, by Messrs. JOHN MOULSON & SONS.
Description. Octagonal stone shaft.
Dimensions,
Total height from top of concrete shafts 260' o"
Height from ground line 240' o"
Concrete foundation, sq 32' 6"
Outside measurement on stone footings 24' o"
Inside diam 12' 2"
Outside measurement at ground line 24' o"
Inside diam. 12' 2"
Outside measurement under cap at top 14' o"
Inside diam. ,, 9' o"
Fire-brick Lining. 9" thick.
Height from top of footings 30'
Inside diam. throughout 9'
Withe [internal wall] height from footings 10'
Fig- 25
Foundation. The site was an old coal shaft, which was filled up with Skipton lime concrete, forming a centre pillar 8' 6" diameter. Round this were constructed four other shafts, each 6' diameter, also of concrete, the sinking of which cost 95.6d. per yard per shaft. Upon this formation was laid a tabling of lime concrete 32' 6" square x 2' 6" thick, the base courses or footings of the chimney resting upon it. The concrete was not rammed, but was tipped in from staging ; it was almost liquid and nearly levelled itself by the drop. The old workings surrounding the centre shaft were packed with stones and oak wedges. The amount of contract for sinking the four shafts, packing coal beds, cleansing and searching old workings, and ascertaining the condition of ground, was £104. 17. 9.
Figs. 24, 29, 30.
Materials. Outer stone casing, stone backing, and 9" common brick lining throughout, fire-brick at bottom. Weight. Total, 3,600 tons ; above cuts (made in straightening described further on), 2,230 tons. Pressure, 4-5 tons per foot sup. of foundation. 22.4 tons super on 5 concrete piers.
Contract. The construction of the chimney was settled as follows: The late Sir H. W. Ripley, Bart., being desirous of erecting a chimney, sent for Messrs. J. Moulson & Sons in May, 1862, to give a tender. There were no plans or specifications prepared when the tender was given, but the following formed
the basis of the estimate: Chimney to be 8o-yds. high, 9' flue, base 24' square, with two courses of footings 12" thick, the first 28' square, the second 24' square, placed on a good bed of concrete. The builders undertook to execute the work for £942. 55. 10. The Ashlar foundations, concrete and capping, to be extra. Building. At the ground line the chimney was a regular octagon, and was so continued upwards at a regular batter of 7/8" to the yard. The chimney was commenced July, 1862, and continued to the middle of December (the back end of the year being open), the building was then suspended, being a little more than 120' high. The work re- commenced 28th February, 1863. "Through" stones were built in at about every 3' in circumference, and about 2' 3" apart vertically. The erection was continued to the 7th June, the chimney having reached 210' in height. Figs. 29 and 30.
Straightening. On the evening of this day (7th June), the chimney was left plumb. On the 8th it was found to be bulged on one side, and hollow on the other. About 54' from ground line a course of stones was cut out on the opposite side to the canting over. Two men outside with long chisels cut away,
say for 1 foot wide on the outside, a 7" stone course and through the backing ; two men from the inside cut through the brick lining, and met the opening cut through the backing from the outside. This space was filled up with stones |" less in thickness ; upon these were placed long feather-edged iron wedges to make up the original thickness. This operation was continued nearly
half-way round, with the exception of the angles which were left. Before proceeding to draw the wedges, mastic cement was introduced by means of syringes. The wedges were then withdrawn by hammering them sideways, both from inside and outside. As the wedges were removed the men could hear the through stones breaking. The first cut did not have the desired effect, and a second was decided upon about 2' above the first, with the same results as to breaking the throughs. The chimney was, after this, declared to be perpendicular. In the "coming to," the corner stones at the angles were crushed for about 12' above and below the cuttings. These were replaced,
and the chimney was then completed. Cracks. Three years after completion the chimney was found to be cracked and broken on the side opposite to the cuts. This was repaired at a cost of £96. About 1872 further cracks were noticed, which were repaired. In October, 1882, the tenants of the mill became uneasy about further indications of cracking, which, in December,
developed into bulges. Upon examination it was decided to take out the bulges and repair the outer casing, it being the general opinion the latter was alone at fault. Difficulty was experienced in this, and the attempt to rectify the bulge failed. Collapse, On the 26th Dec. small portions of the outer casing fell, and on the 27th a large piece fell, breaking down the scaffold used for the repairs. On the night of the 27th the wind blew half a gale, or about 16-lbs. per foot super. On the following morning, 28th Dec., more of the outer casing fell, and
at a few minutes past eight a.m. the chimney began to settle, bursting out stones and lime near where the chimney had been cut. This continued for a few seconds, then the upper portion of the chimney fell in a S.E. direction, killing 54 persons, and destroying property estimated at £20,000. In 1884 a test action was brought against Messrs. Ripley by the sufferers through this disaster, and resulted in the whole matter being referred to an arbitration, which awarded in the aggregate £2,500 as damages.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 03 Jun 2015, 04:07

PACIFIC MILLS, LAWRENCE, MASS., U.S.A.
Architect and Builder, H. F. MILLS, C.E.; Built, 1873.
Description. Brick, octagonal outer shaft, circular inner shaft, vertical inner lining. Shaft situate 210' from boilers.
Dimensions,
Total height 242' o"
Height of outer shaft, including footings 233' o"
Height of inner lining 234' o"
Outside measurement outer shaft at base 20'
OD at top, under projecting cornice . 11' 6"
Inside diam. vertical flue 8' 6"
Foundation bed, 19' below ground, coarse gravel, Concrete 35' square, enclosed by pine sheet piling . . 1' thick. Rubble masonry of granite in Rosendale cement ... 7' high.
Outer Shaft. This is constructed in six sections, viz. :
1st section 12' high 28" thick.
2nd , 18'….. 24"
3rd, 20ft……20”
4th 40ft…..16”
5th 60ft…..12”
6th 83ft…..8”

Total 233' high above granite masonry.

Inner Shaft,
1st section. .... . . . 27' high 24" thick.
2nd . ....... . 17' ….16"
3rd ………52ft……12”
4th ……..145ft……8”

Construction. The foundations were laid in mortar of Rosendale cement and sand ; the outer shell in mortar of Rosendale cement, lime and sand ; and the flue walls in mortar of lime and sand. Duty. In the winter of 1873, the vertical flue having reached 90' in height above ground, boilers having 452 square
feet of grate surface were connected with the chimney, with satisfactory results. The chimney was designed to serve boilers having 700 square feet of grate surface. Weight. The approximate weight of the chimney is 2,250
long tons. Bricks. There were 550,000 bricks used in the construction
of this shaft. Lightning Conductor. The shaft was struck by lightning
in June, 1880, after which date a lightning rod was put up. It consists of a seamless copper tube, 5/16” thick, 1" inside diameter, at the top of which are seven points radiating from a ball 4" in diameter, the top of the central point being 8 ½ feet above the iron cap. The rod is attached to the chimney by brass castings, and is connected at the base to a 4" iron pipe extending 60' to a canal.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 04 Jun 2015, 05:50

DOVERCOURT CEMENT WORKS, MESSRS. JOHN PATTRICK AND
SONS.
Figs. 31, 32 and 33.
Designed and built by Mr. JOSEPH BLACKBURN.
Built, 1883, between January and October ; 7 months occupied.
Description. Brick, square base, octagonal shaft.
Dimensions.
Total height, including foundations 249'
Height from ground line 230' o"
Outside measurement at base of footings 22' 2"
Inside at top 9' 2"
Outside at ground line 19' 3"
Inside 8' 9"
Outside at top 9' 5", inside 7' o"
Foundation. The foundation bed is clay ; upon this is laid a block of concrete, 26' square x 8" thick, upon which the footings commence. Fig. 31. Pedestal. The square pedestal is 37' high above concrete bed, thickness of brickwork 5' 3", octagonal flue, without fire-brick lining. The foundation and pedestal were allowed time to settle before building of shaft was commenced. Shaft. Octagonal brick, thickness at base 4' 3", thickness at top 14 1/2". At the junction of the octagonal shaft and square pedestal pyramidal corners are constructed 12' 6" high, so as to equalise the bearing of shaft on square base.
Cap. Constructed of brickwork. Materials. Concrete, six sand and gravel to one cement. Mortar, five river sand to one white chalk lime ; to each ¼ yd. of
mortar one bag of Portland cement added (the whole well tempered before use). Bricks, kiln burnt, 9" x & X 2 1", with white Burnham brick angles specially made ; total, 280 m. Weight. About 1,800 tons. Bond. English.
Scaffold. Inside, costing £7-10-0. Lightning Conductor. Copper tape, 2" x 1/8", terminated about 20' from base of chimney, laid in carbonaceous material, well watered and rammed. Cost £40 fixed. Duty. This chimney serves twelve cement kilns and twenty-four coke ovens. Cost. Total, £2,000.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 05 Jun 2015, 04:23

WOOLWICH ARSENAL, SHELL FOUNDRY, CHIMNEY.
Description. Octagonal brick shaft, square base.
Dimensions
Height from foundation above concrete to top .... 239' 9"
Height from ground line to top 223' 9"
Outside measurement of square base 20'
Height of base above ground 27'
octagonal shaft above base 196' 9"
External diam. of shaft at base 16' 9"
Ditto at top 6’ 6"
Thickness at Base of octagonal shaft .... 2' 7 ½ "
Top of octagonal shaft 9"
The brickwork is reduced 4 ½ " at every 31' 6", the topmost length being 26' in height.
Foundation. Concrete.
Construction. The whole of the chimney is built in mortar, with the exception of the top 9', which is bell-mouthed, and built in cement. The total time occupied in the erection of this stalk was nineteen weeks. Cap. This is of Portland stone, with blocking course, and weighs about 17 tons. Scaffold. Inside.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 06 Jun 2015, 03:59

Another build that didn't go well!


MESSRS. J. C. GOSTLING & Co., CEMENT WORKS, NORTHFLEET,
NEAR GRAVESEND.
Figs. 34. 35. 36.
Architect, JAMES CUBITT ; Builder, Mr. BLAGBURN.
Built June, 1873 ; 16 weeks (good weather) occupied in erection. Fell, Oct. 2nd, 1873.
Description. Circular brick.
Dimensions,
Height, including foundation 227' 3."
Height above ground 220' o"
Outside measurement base of square footings .... 30' o"
diameter at ground line 22', Inside 14' 6"
Outside diam. at top 11ft. Inside 9' 6". Inside diam. At 4' 7 ½ " from top 8' 9"
Foundation Bed. Chalk.
Shaft. This was constructed in nine sections, viz. :
Footings 7ft.
1st section………26ft 3ins, 3ft 9ins thick.
2nd section………ditto………3ft 4 ½ “
3rd section……….ditto………3ft
4th section………ditto………2ft 7 ½ “
5th section ……….ditto………2ft 3”
6th section………..ditto………1ft 10 ½ “
7th section……….ditto……….1ft 6”
8th section………31ft 10 ½ “…1ft 1 ½ “
9th section……….4ft 7 ½ “……9”
Batter. 1 in 40.

227' 3" total height.
Cap. This was formed of equal over-sailing courses of brick, laid in cement-mortar (see construction), each course projecting about 3/8 of an inch beyond that below. The extreme projection attained at top of cap was 15 ½ " beyond the vertical line drawn from starting point, but as it took 9' 9" in height to do this, and as the batter was 3" in 10', the projection of the top of cap from the receding line of shaft was 18 ½ “. Upon the cap there were eight flat projections or piers, constructed each 1ft 11ins wide, carried up in over-sailing courses, ranging with those of the body of the cap. The projection of these piers from top to bottom was 4 ½ " beyond the main part of cap, and the bottoms of them were supported on a series of courses over-sailing more gradually than the upper ones. Above the cap the shaft wall was continued for a height of 4' 6" in 9" work. Bond. The bond was that known as "half-brick bond," and contained at least twice as many stretchers as would occur in
Old English bond. Weight. Shaft, 1,674 tons; cap, 19 tons 3 cwt. Pressure,
On base of 3' 9" work . . . . 6 ¾ tons per ft. super. On base of 1ft 1 ½ “ work 2 ½ tons per ft super and on base of 1ft 1 ½ “ below cap, ½ a ton per foot super.

Construction. Messrs. J. C. Gostling & Co. made arrangements with Mr. Blagburn to provide labour for the erection of the shaft as above detailed for £500, the firm providing all materials. The best Dorking grey stone lime was used with the best Thames sand, every few courses being grouted in with
Portland cement. The whole of the upper part of chimney was built of the best picked paviors, all imperfect bricks being rejected. The lower part of the walls was partly composed of the hardest stocks that could be obtained and partly of paviors ; and within 5o'of the ground there was a small proportion 5% of rather over-burnt and somewhat vitrified bricks, approaching in character to "rough stocks." There was no difference between the facing and backing, the same quality of bricks being used for the entire thickness of wall. At intervals of about 3' two successive courses of brickwork were built with the vertical
joints dry, and then grouted with neat Portland cement. The cement, which was thus poured in as grout, set admirably. After falling 200' these bricks were still found joined in double courses, and they had as often broken through their own substance as through the cement. There was not the least sign of expansion caused by the cement, and a large mill floor at the works was laid at the same time with the same lot of cement, and no flaw or blister subsequently appeared. The cement used was the best of the Burnham Cement Company's make. The original intention was to mix the cement with an equal measure of sand for the construction of the cap, but by the advice of persons experienced in this class of building it was used with a small quantity of mortar. The idea was, that though the ultimate strength of the cement and sand might be as great, yet the cement and mortar would adhere to the bricks
better at the beginning. Whatever may have been the cause it appeared after the accident that a considerable part of this cement-mortar had not set with anything like the firmness of the neat cement grouting.
Collapse.
On Thursday afternoon, Oct. 2nd, 1873, the shaft being virtually finished, Messrs. Gostling attended to witness the laying of the last brick. At about one o'clock, when the workmen were about to ascend, one man having actually reached the top, the upper part of the shaft was observed to bulge outwardly, and immediately afterwards about 60' of the top fell, both outside and inside the chimney, resulting in the death of six and injury of eight men. The outline of the fractured shaft was highest on the south- southwest west side, and sloped irregularly in the opposite direction, as see dotted line, Fig. 34. The top of the ruin overhung considerably towards the north-east, and there were vertical fissures extending for a short distance down. The smaller fissures, and
very likely some of the larger ones, were produced as follows : The cross timbers, on which one after another the internal scaffolds had rested, were left in till the completion; at the moment of the accident great masses of brickwork fell on these timbers, and thus violently jarred the walls at the points where they were inserted, and the result was that many of these points
were subsequently traceable on the outside by bulges and radiating cracks.
The only witness who deposed at the inquest that he saw the actual collapse from the outside stated that it began by bulging at a point on the north-east side of the shaft some 10' below the cap. The remains of the chimney were blown down by the Royal Engineers on the Saturday afternoon following the accident. A charge of 5-lb. of gun cotton was first fired in the centre of
the debris, in the inside of the chimney, to ascertain the effect produced on the loose masses at the top by the concussion. The cracks were opened and a few bricks brought down by it. A charge of 8-lb. of gun cotton was then placed in the centre of the chimney, about 20" from the ground, by securing the charge to the end of a pole which was put through an opening in the side of the chimney from a high bank close to which the chimney had been built. No immediate result followed, but a few moments after the charge had been fired two large masses of brickwork fell from the top, and the cracks in the chimney
opened very much and extended downwards. After waiting half-an-hour to avoid risk another similar charge was fired in the same position, when the top of the ruin fell, and the base crumbled to about 30' from the ground. The remaining brickwork could now have been safely pulled down in the ordinary
way, but to assist, four charges of 1 ½ lbs. each were placed in the cracks in the chimney and fired. The result, however, was only to open the cracks further, without bringing down any quantity of brickwork. The charges were fired by Professor Abel's detonators and Siemen's dynamo-electric machine.
Rebuilt. The chimney was re-built in 1874, 220' high, according to the original design. The special precautions which the accident in the previous year had shown to be indispensable were taken to ensure that all the bricks were wetted
before being laid, and that none of the mortar or cement was worked up again after being spoilt or " killed." Mr. J. Cubitt acted as architect, Mr. Blagburn as contractor, and Messrs. Gostling as before supplied their own materials.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 07 Jun 2015, 04:17

NEW YORK STEAM HEATING COMPANY, GREENWICH STREET
BOILER HOUSE, U.S.A.
Engineer, Dr. CHARLES E. EMERY, M. Am. Soc. C.E.
Dimensions
Height above foundation 221' o"
Height above high water 220' o"
Height above basement floor 217' o"
Height above grates of lower tier of boilers 201'
Above upper tier 141'
Inside measurement 27' 10" X 8' 4"
Foundation. The beach of the Hudson River was, at some time, at this locality, and the foundation of the chimney was placed in fine clear beach sand, with some pockets of coarser sand and a little stone. The foundation is 1' below high water.
Construction. It was necessary to place within a limited area a very large boiler capacity, viz., 16,000 hp. This was done by making four stories of boilers ; the chimney was, therefore, necessarily located with reference to these boilers, and the plan of the chimney was determined by the shape of the lot. The thickness of the walls on the interior of the building runs from 5' to 20", and on the other sides from 3' to 20". Fuel, &c. About 1,000 tons of coal will be burnt daily. It is expected that elevator arrangements will be perfected to
receive this amount of coal each night. More trouble is experienced with the ashes than with the coal. Clearing is done every six hours. A new bar is used that turns on hinges and gives good results. Mr. Emery says: "We have not
made many experiments with coal dust ; we have to use a fuel which has some reserve power to provide for possible contingencies. We find coal is worth about what is charged for it."
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 08 Jun 2015, 04:45

MESSRS. MARK OLDROYD & SON'S CHIMNEY SHAFT, KNOWN
AS "BIG BEN," DEWSBURY.
Architects Messrs. JOHN KIRK & SONS.
Description. Round brick shaft without pedestal, built 1869.
Dimensions,
Total height, including foundation 229' o"
Height from ground line to top 210' o"
Outside measurement concrete bed 40' o"
brick foundation 34' o"
at ground surface 23' 8"
Inside diam at ground surface 10ft
Outside diam. At top 12ft 6ins. Inside, 10ft.

Foundation Bed. Gravel. Batter. 1 in 37. Bricks. 600 m. used in construction.
Weight. 2,000 tons. Scaffold. Inside. Cap. Built of stone. Lightning Conductor. Stranded copper rope. Duty. No. 8, 40 hp. boilers connected to shaft. Cost. £1,200.
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Re: STEEPLEJACK'S CORNER 2012

Post by Stanley » 09 Jun 2015, 04:50

Two for you today.....

COLTNESS IRON WORKS, LANARKSHIRE.
Dimensions,
Height above ground 210' o"
Outside measurement at base 18' 6" at top 10' 6"
Construction. This chimney is built up in five sections, as
follows :
1st section 35' high 4 ½ bricks thick.
2nd 40' …….4 bricks
3rd 50'………3 bricks
4th , 40' …..2 ½ bricks
5th 45' ……...1 ½ bricks
210' high above ground.
Fire-brick Lining. 25' high, 10" thick.


CLEVELAND ROLLING MILL Co., CLEVELAND, OHIO, U.S.A.
Figs. 37 and 38.
Engineers and Constructors, Messrs. WITHEROW & GORDON, Pittsburg,
Pa., U.S.A.
Built Sept., 1881. About 50 days were occupied in its erection, apart from the building of the foundation proper. Description. Wrought iron chimney, bell-shaped base.
Dimensions,
Height, including foundations 213' 6"
Height from ground line to top 190'
Height of bell-shaped base 21'
Outside measurement at foundation 30' 6"
diameter at foot of bell base 21' 2"
at top of bell base 13' 6"
At top OD is 12ft.
Internal diameter throughout 11ft
Foundation. Stone laid in cement, and is situate in what is termed the "Bottom" next to Cuyahoga River, where the ground is all of alluvial formation. For such a load as this chimney the foundation required close piling ; piles were driven 23' to 24' in depth, and almost in contact with each other. Through the stone foundation, No. 8, 2 ½ " bolts were passed,
connecting a circular cast-iron foundation plate of T section, 18" x 8 ¾ " at bottom of stonework to a similar casting upon the top of stone foundation. This top circular ring or base plate is formed with a projecting flange placed at an angle of 60 degrees to receive plates forming bell-shaped base, 2' above ground.
Construction. The chimney was constructed by inside scaffolding and built up one plate higher at a time. The workmen hanging what is called a "cage" on the plates to serve as a stand for the " holder on " while riveting the plates in situ. Bell-shaped Base. The plates forming the base are bolted to the flange of chimney base ring by ¾ " bolts, and when completed to a height of 21' form a bell-shaped base 21' 2" diameter at bottom and 13' 6" at top. Shaft. From the top of bell-shaped base the wrought-iron outer casing is continued to a height of 21' from below top; from this point the cap is formed as shown on drawing.
Rivets and Riveting. The plates are all riveted together with a lap of 2". The constructors used conical-shaped rivet heads, and the diameter of rivets for this class of work is as near as possible twice the thickness or upwards of plate, and the pitch of rivets is 5 diameters. Ladder. A wrought-iron ladder is fixed to the outside. Fire-brick Lining. A fire-brick lining was built up through
the entire height of the chimney, commencing at junction of flues in the foundation with a thickness of 18", and finishing at top 5" thick. The internal diameter, when finished with lining, is 11' and constant throughout its height.
The radiated fire-bricks were of five sizes, purposely made. Stability. The chimneys built on this plan are calculated to withstand 5o-lb. wind pressure per square foot with safety. The constructors say the climate of America is dry and no doubt better for such structures than the climate of England. They
believe that no one alive at the present time will see the end of a W. I. chimney lined with brick. The oldest ones in America show no material deterioration.
Painting. The wrought-iron chimneys in America are painted every three or four years with oxide of iron paint, preferably anhydrous.
Cost. Complete, 13,000 dollars; or £2, 708. 6s. 8d.
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